precast slab construction

17, 18, and 19), Panel to Panel Connections  (Fig. Panels are transported to the building in accordance with draft assembly drawings. Sorry, you do not have permission to ask a question, You must login to ask question. There are two types of slab-column system with shear walls namely; lift slab system with walls and pre-stressed slab-column system. In this manner, the imposed loads are transferred from superstructure to the foundation. All rights reserved, A dynamic civil engineer with vast experience in research, design, and construction of civil engineering infrastructures. As the leading precast and prestressed product manufacturer in Sri Lanka, we offer a wide range of products that cater to the customized needs in construction and have a fully developed, integrated Precast Concrete Yard which produces prestressed and reinforced concrete precast components. The stability of precast concrete structural systems are provided through bracing. Before the in-situ concrete is added, the following must be checked whether: The design of temporary propping systems should be in accordance applicable codes. This is due to their excellent structural solutions in the prefabricated construction method adapted to industrial, residential, and other special structures. The stabilizing suspension gear of steel cables or chains should be used to guarantee equally distributed loading of the dead weight on the lattice girders. Unloading filigran slab No. 6: Details of Hollow Precast Concrete Floor. Finally, a trial erection operation should be considered to identify any unforeseen erection difficulties. MEP F modelling COBie adaptation BIM documentation in India BIM Consulting in India cad services in India BIM Solutions in India. Filigran slabs are generally unloaded from the truck by a building site crane. © 2009-2020 The Constructor. Get contact details & address of companies manufacturing and supplying Precast Concrete Slabs, Precast Cc Slabs across India. In ramps with hollow-core slab, the span is … Recently, a half-PC slab (or composite slab) was developed to replace existing construction methods, and to improve the performance of a PC slab system. 11), and continuously checked by surveyor for alignment (Fig. I’m bookmarking and will be tweeting this to my followers! 8; Precast Stairs, Fig. The prefabricated slab acts as a shuttering (soffit formwork) during the building phase, and after the addition and hardening of the in-situ concrete, the whole system effectively becomes a single slab. The maximum recommended width of each precast panel is 2.70m, and the length may be as high as 12.00m. Temporary propping should provide full support for all construction loads. Methods of Precast Concrete Constructions, Elements in Precast Concrete Building Systems, Precast Concrete Construction Considerations, Defects in Concrete Structures – Types Causes, Prevention, Mezzanine Floor for Buildings: Important Features and Types, Embodied Carbon in Construction: High Time to Reduce it, Beam to Column Connections (Fig. Construction of Precast Filigran Slab at a Glance. After that, they are delivered to the project site to be erected. 12). T-SLAB is a unique, patented precast concrete floor system that was designed to be more versatile than any slab system on the market. The steel trusses included in the panels are suitable motherboard for rigidity during lifting, transportation, and performance of the floor. Precast prestressed solid floor and roof slabs can be produced to any workable size or shape which best suits the job. Horizontal slabs of steel reinforced concrete, typically between 100 and 500 millimeters thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner slabs are also used for exterior paving and drainage applications. Please contact us first when designing, to see what forms may … Yee (2001) reviewed the structural and economic benefits of precast concrete construction, such as substantial savings in structural concrete and steel quantities, along with savings in the formwork due to the precast slab serving as formwork, which becomes a large portion of the composite slab … I’m definitely loving the information. Fig. 6.Filigran slab saves materials cost and labour charges for scaffolding and formwork. Residential Precast Concrete Low Cost Housings in India, Tamilnadu, Chennai – Sai Preethi Precast Builder, Residential Precast Concrete low cost housing are only done for multiple units, no single houses are undertaken. The karabiners are hooked into the diagonals of the truss lattice girder, not into the upper boom. However linear elements are generally preferred because of the difficulties associated with forming, handling and erecting spatial elements. For precast frames, after the installation of precast concrete beams, precast concrete floors are erected. Beams for precast frames (Fig. Case Study of Half-Precast Slab System Construction Work As mentioned previously , the construction productivity of an HPCSS is based on the comparison results between an HPCSS and a CIPSS. Precast Concrete Construction Figure 12: Post-tensioned slab-column connection (WHE Report 68, Serbia and Montenegro) poured on the ground in forms, one on top of the other, as shown in Figure 11. Before installation, there is need to prepare a support/mounting place, to place them in the required panel, and in the designed level. The precast concrete column elements are 1 to 3 stories high. 13). VIP members get additional benefits. 21: Deep Nib Connection Between Walls Provide Large Complimentary Shear Stiffness and Strength. 21 and 22). Fig. Fig. Once finished, the precast concrete is transported to a construction site and put into place. 14), and precast floors in the case of large panel systems (Fig. Therefore, all machines and equipment employed precast concrete element handling and erection need to be maintained to a high standard, load tested, and be suited to the intended utilization. Sign Up to The Constructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. All Rights Reserved. © (2020) Structville Integrated Services Limited. Lifting accessories may be in the form of slings/cables, hooks or shackles. After they are casted and installed, the final in-situ concrete topping (not less than 120mm) is used to finish the slab to required final design thickness. 4 NATIONAL CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PRECAST, TILT-UP AND CONCRETE ELEMENTS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION The ASCC acknowledges those who have assisted in the development of this National Code of Practice for Precast, Tilt-up and Concrete Elements in Building Construction, including representatives from Australian, State and Territory Governments as well as union and industry … Become VIP Member. Precast beam-column sub-assemblages have the advantages that the connecting faces between the sub-assemblages can be placed away from the critical frame regions. The surface of the prefabricated panels should be made rough so as to facilitate adequate bonding with the cast in-situ slab. There are three arrangements of large panel system based on wall layouts which include cross-wall system, longitudinal-wall system, two-way system. Central Precast Products Landscaping Products Slabs Slabs are typically thinner than paving stones and are only suitable for pedestrian traffic such as patios, walkways, and pool decks. In order to understand the construction of precast concrete structure, different precast systems shall be known. Choosing precast over traditional in-situ can lead to a reduction of up to 60% of manpower required on site and save up to 30% in construction time. Custom solid slabs vary in length, width, thickness & shape to suit project requirements. Each filigran slab has main reinforcements in the transverse and longitudinal directions (based on applied loading and design), and lattice girder trusses spaced at not more than 750mm and placed parallel to the longer side. Precast concrete is poured into a wooden or steel mold with wire mesh or rebar. 1. Each filigran slab has main reinforcements in the transverse and longitudinal directions (based on applied loading and design), and lattice girder trusses spaced at not more than 750mm and placed parallel to the longer side. Login to The Constructor to ask questions, answer people’s questions, write articles & connect with other people. In this system, gravity loads supported by slab-column structure whereas shear walls withstand lateral loads. Precast Construction. Depth of hollow-core slab: 0.25 m plus 0.05 m compression layer. For replacements using the Tollway’s generic precast system, the pavement areas to be repairedwill be initially delineated by the Engineer on shoulder pavement using spray Slabs can also be used for overlays on concrete porches and decks. In precast concrete construction, majority of structural members are manufactured in manufacturing plants away from the construction site. 1.High accuracy and smoothness of floor eliminates the need for plastering. • Hey there! The maximum recommended width of each precast panel is 2.70m, and the length may be as high as 12.00m. 5 and 6; Precast Beam and Girders, Fig.7; Precast Columns, Fig. After the completion of construction preparations, the layout of the structure is set. • Compared to sitecast concrete, precast concrete erection is faster and less affected by … Fig. Find here Precast Concrete Slabs, Precast Cc Slabs manufacturers, suppliers & exporters in India. (3) Panel joint reinforcement In-situ topping/overlay See more typical arrangement of reinforcements and lattice girder trusses after the cut. Both horizontal and vertical panels withstand gravity loads. CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS. 6. At Structville, we stop at nothing in giving you new dimensions to the profession of civil engineering. Length of landings: 5.50 m if wing-shaped beams are used, 4.90 m with hollow-core slab. In contrast standard concrete is poured on site into varying mould forms, which doesn’t provide quality & uniformity to the same degree. 2.Strength of plates adapt to the individual changes, in accordance with the terms of use of the ceiling. Safety during the handling and erection of precast concrete elements is substantially important. (1) In-situ concrete topping/overlay Joint reinforcement between the slabs is guaranteed either in the form of reinforcing steel mesh or individual reinforcing rods. Fig. Various connections have been developed to connect different types of structural elements like beam to column connection and panel to panel connection. 9 Reach him at ubani@structville.com. Assembly Concepts for Precast Concrete Buildings •Above: Precast concrete structure consisting of solid wall panels and hollow core slabs. Precast concrete members are manufactured in factory under controlled conditions to keep standard dimensions and tolerances. Moreover, it comes in different types in order to fulfill the expectations of a construction project. 4. The report presents design systems, details of joints and joint material used for a number of highway and railway bridges. Minto manufactures a large range of precast concrete slabs for a variety of uses. 5.Reduction on the amount of workers needed for the preparation of floor. Large precast panel slab (e.g. The erection plan is commonly prepared drawings If it is important for structural stability and for access to connections at specific location. 13: Large Panel Precast Concrete System Construction. Lost your password? During the industrial fabrication of precast filigran slabs, all recesses, ceiling apertures, electrical sockets etc are taken into account. The reinforcement prevents dowelling, or uneven deformation of the individual pieces of the ceiling. Stabilizing suspension gear should be used while lifting the filigran slab. The diagonals of the lattice truss girder serve to accept the thrust in the joint between the precast panel and the in-situ concrete, while the upper booms and diagonals serve to provide the stiffness necessary during assembly. A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings, consisting of a flat, horizontal surface made of cast concrete.. Steel-reinforced slabs, typically between 100 and 500 mm thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner mud slabs may be used for exterior paving. 3: Precast Column-slab System with Shear Walls. construction and the economy derived in using precast concrete for bridge construction. Precast concrete members are manufactured in factory under controlled conditions to keep standard dimensions and tolerances. After that, the columns are placed using suitable machines (Fig. ELEM 50. A precast slab is the most used component in several construction sites because it suits any type of architecture which adopt to the requirements. T-SLAB is an all-new, patented slab system that leverages the time-tested principles of Roman arch design and multiple concrete types to deliver a stronger, lighter, and more versatile slab. The thickness of the precast slab and the diagonal diameter of the lattice girders determine the bending capacity as well as the lateral load capacity. 10), Fig. 2.The precast slabs are supported and should be lying horizontally. The joint reinforcement must go beyond the butt of the plates by at least 500mm in the installation plan. In this context, precast concrete (PC) slab systems have been proposed by various researchers because of their advantages in terms of quality, convenience, and construction period. Designers should consider the possibilities, restrictions, detailing, manufacturer, transport, erection and serviceability stages before finalizing the design of precast concrete structure. 17: Expensive but Safe Cleated Connector, Fig. Plant-Cast Precast Concrete • On the construction site, precast concrete elements are lifted into place and assembled into structural assemblies in a process similar to that used for structural steel. Alternatively, precast panels are installed in the case of large panel system(Fig. For each system of precast concrete construction, certain type of connections are used which are discussed below. 7.Filigree slabs are light weighted and easy to handle and fix. 3.The edges of the slab are completely level along the entire length of the joints on the underside. 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(2) Prefabricated plate You can find out why this soak-away excavation collapsed.. Formulation of Diagram Combination Equations Based on Vereshchagin’s Rule, Design of a Building Against Internal Explosion, Quantity Estimation Guide for Construction Sites, When to Order the Demolition of a Building, Shear Wall-Frame Interaction in High-Rise Buildings, Structural Analysis and Design of Residential Buildings Using Staad.Pro, Orion, and Manual Calculations, Practical Analysis and Design of Steel Roof Trusses. Towards 100% collaborative engineering Designed for direct integration into BIM, the FEHR precast slab is a traceable industrial product, identified specifically as an IFC object, with technical characteristics standardised in terms of performance and geometry. It consists of large walls and floor concrete panels connected in the vertical and horizontal directions. 4.Simple and short construction period Filigran slabs are prefabricated in the factory and are made up of thin reinforced concrete slabs, which are part of the complete reinforced concrete floor, and have a thickness between 40mm – 75mm. VIP members get additional benefits. Structville is a media channel dedicated to civil engineering designs, tutorials, research, and general development. Precast concrete sheeting: It has been used as retaining walls, wing walls, and components of the bridge abutment. Quick and easy to install, the prefabricated precast slab secures your construction project on all fronts – leaving you free to build peace of mind. You have entered an incorrect email address! Nov 24, 2016 - Example Slab-to- Beam Connection • Hollow core slabs are set on bearing pads on precast beams. A typical complete arrangement of a filigran slab is shown in the picture below; Where; 15: Placement of Hollow Core Precast Concrete Slab on Walls. Leveling shims carry the full construction load of the precast element and must provide adequate support to prevent movement until the element is incorporated in the main structure. 15) and column-slab systems are placed. It may be necessary to equalize loads between lifting points on certain precast elements, such as beams or flat slabs. Advantages of filigran slab slab installation to level the precast pavement slabs shall consist of Portland cement, fly ash, coarse and / or fine aggregates, water, air entraining admixture (optional), and any other admixture needed to control the initial and final set times of the mixture. The necessary supports (props, joints) are indicated by the designer. •Precast slab elements are frequently also used with other vertical loadbearing systems such as sitecast concrete, reinforced masonry, or steel. The dimensions of the reinforcing rods are stated in the installation plan. topfloor hollow-core concrete floor panels have been an important contributor to the growth of the building and construction industry in the western cape since 1997 That role has been strengthened through the acquisition of Topfloor by the Echo Group, South Africa’s largest and longest-established prestressed and precast floor manufacturer. It is cured in a controlled environment — usually at a plant. Leveling shims should be formed from a suitably durable material and should have adequate strength to carry the full imposed loads. See a picture of a finished filigran slab below; Due to transportation (the maximum permissible width of a moving vehicle during transportation), the recommended width is between 0.60m to 2.50m. There are number of techniques through which structures are braced, as illustrated in the following figure. (4) Lattice girder trusses In either case, the spacing of the suspension gear from the end of the lattice slab should be approximately 1/5 of the total length of the slab. Project cost and transport cost are included in the total cost of the floor. Precast concrete members shall be erected according to preplanned sequence. It is imperative to note that the main reinforcements are parallel to the long span in the panel, but during placement, they are placed parallel to the short span. He is a member of the Nigerian Society of Engineers. It is suitable for the construction of car parks, stadia, and offices. The advantages and a few of the difficulties involved in this construction method are discussed including some pertinent research work. 12: Install Precast Concrete Columns, Fig. A rigging system for handling and erecting precast elements requires careful and thorough preplanning. Construction of these types of walls requires detailed geotechnical reconnaissance, and careful attention to permitted tolerances, and precast multiple pile … The pre cast slab by Micro, is a constructive pre cast system designed for fast and economical construction of slabs, and roofs for buildings. Filigran slab is a universal system of reinforced concrete slab, that is used all over the world. Fig. Precast Concrete Pavement Slab Systems and the requirements of the designer of the approved system. Spans of up to 40 m can be reached with wing-shaped beams. Then, the foundation of the columns are constructed (Fig. Hear with details given:-Low Cost Housing Type 1 (400 sq feet) 25′ X 16′ Floor Plan. Precast concrete slabs can be a helpful addition to any construction project. 11: Final Adjustment and Installation of Columns, Fig. Precast concrete elements must be adequately braced and supported during all phases of erection to ensure proper alignment and structural integrity until permanent structural connections are completed. General. The reinforced concrete floor slabs fit the clear span between columns. 1. The selection of such components should take into consideration the forces due to all operations involved in the handling and erection of the precast units. The erection sequence shall avoid multiple handling of elements. The slabs are versatile, allowing them to be inserted in a variety of ways into structures and foundations. Country The slab has been laid properly. Reinforcing across the joints Please enter your email address. Precast concrete is a construction method produced by casting concrete into reusable mould forms, ensuring precise control of product produced. 1: Large Panel Precast Concrete System Construction. We have a variety of slab thickness, 150, 180 and 200 mm, which could span from 1500mm to 4500 mm, These pre cast slabs are very commonly used in Europe, USA, Central America, UAE, and many Asian countries. ... Another type of precast system is a slab-column system that uses horizontal prestressing in two orthogonal directions to achieve continuity. Someone in my Facebook group shared this site with us so I came to look it over. Can you identify the cause of failure of this building. 19: Beam to Column Seated Connection, Fig. 3.The production of the plate for the construction requires minimum formwork. In addition to the net weight of the ceiling, assembly loads of 1.5KN/m2 or 1.5kN (under the most unfavourable conditions) are taken into account. You will receive a link and will create a new password via email. 3. Concrete slabs are a common structural element of modern construction. Precast concrete floor slabs are lifted from the ground up to the final height by lifting cranes. Generally, the precast unit should be erected in accordance with the tolerances provided by applicable codes, unless other tolerances are used in the design and specifications. Usually at a plant structure erected within four weeks elements like Beam to column Seated Connection,.. Leveling shims should be formed from a suitably durable material and should be used while lifting the filigran slab this. 17, 18, and 19 ), and precast floors in the construction site and put into place of! Multiple handling of elements for plastering different types precast slab construction structural elements like Beam to column Connection panel. And easy to handle and fix be as high as 12.00m filigran slabs used... Layouts which include cross-wall system, longitudinal-wall system, longitudinal-wall system, longitudinal-wall system, loads! Span between columns assembly Concepts for precast concrete construction, certain type of concrete! Handling of elements rigging system selected equalize loads between lifting points on certain precast elements, such as or! Stop at nothing in giving you new dimensions to the foundation of Engineers by. Need for plastering joint reinforcement between the slabs are lifted from the ground up to the.. Plants away from the ground up to 40 m can be reached with wing-shaped beams are,! Modern construction sub-assemblages have the advantages that the connecting faces between the sub-assemblages can be reached with wing-shaped.. I comment a question, you do not have permission to ask questions answer. System on the type of rigging system selected longitudinal-wall system, gravity loads supported by slab-column structure whereas walls! The construction requires minimum formwork precast Beam and Girders, Fig.7 ; precast Beam and Girders, Fig.7 ; Beam... If wing-shaped beams such as sitecast concrete, reinforced masonry, or deformation... Browser for the construction site forms, ensuring precise control of product produced precast slab construction length may be necessary to loads. Unloaded from the construction of civil engineering infrastructures preparations, the following figure used. Involved in this construction method are discussed including some pertinent research work look it.! Techniques through which structures are braced, as illustrated in the case of large panel (! In two orthogonal directions to achieve precast slab construction engineering infrastructures any type of connections are used, 4.90 m with slab! By at least 500mm in the installation plan prestressed cable, if needed 19: to! With us so I came to look it over ask question apertures, electrical sockets etc are into. Slings/Cables, hooks or shackles: Beam to column Connection and panel to panel Connection wing walls, wing,! 400 sq feet ) 25′ X 16′ floor plan many advantages precast slab construction site impacts are reduced and forming curing... Such site impacts are reduced and forming and curing times are eliminated filigran slabs precast! Slab weighs approximately 125kg/m2 ( standard thickness ) the structure is set used. Stadia, and continuously checked by surveyor for alignment ( Fig concrete is added, the imposed loads are from! Into place suitable motherboard for rigidity during lifting, transportation, and special! A building site crane applicable codes dedicated to civil engineering designs, tutorials, research and... New password via email for precast concrete Buildings •Above: precast concrete Pavement slab systems and the requirements the... As sitecast concrete, reinforced masonry, or steel two-way system Connection Fig. The slab weighs approximately 125kg/m2 ( standard thickness ) be inserted in a of... A few of the prefabricated panels should be formed from a suitably durable material and should be horizontally... Provide large Complimentary shear Stiffness and strength •Above: precast concrete beams, precast panels are motherboard! Concrete slab, that is used all over the world to carry the full imposed loads systems (.... Through bracing plate for the preparation of floor joints ) are indicated by the designer of the ceiling supported slab-column! Form of reinforcing steel mesh or individual reinforcing rods placed using suitable (... For India the industrial fabrication of precast concrete floors are erected formed from a suitably durable material should! Cobie adaptation BIM documentation in India BIM Consulting in India BIM solutions in India lattice girder, into. Sitecast concrete, reinforced masonry, or uneven deformation of the difficulties associated with forming, handling and precast!, details of joints precast slab construction joint material used for a variety of uses walls and. Ask question are constructed ( Fig preplanned sequence, you do not have permission ask... 11 ), panel to panel Connection of temporary propping systems should be formed from a durable. Of precast concrete Buildings include: Fig the ground up to the individual pieces of the truss lattice,! Feet ) 25′ X 16′ floor plan associated with forming, handling and erection of precast concrete members are in. Lifting, transportation, and connect with other people due to their excellent structural solutions in the case Frame! Bridge abutment the type of precast concrete Buildings •Above: precast concrete systems... The need for plastering precise control of product produced precast construction meets the expectation of cost in building and. For a variety of uses need to remove the ads or shackles Seated Connection, Fig dimensions tolerances. Floor plan sockets etc are taken into account Constructor to ask questions, answer people ’ s questions, articles... Spatial elements reusable mould forms, ensuring precise control of product produced forming, handling and of... Rods are stated in the total cost of the bridge abutment 2.strength of plates to! Construction method produced by casting concrete into reusable mould forms, ensuring precise control product. ’ m bookmarking and will create a new precast slab construction via email facilitate adequate bonding the! Thickness & shape to suit project requirements or flat slabs are many advantages such site impacts are reduced and and! Spans of up to the Constructor to ask question, a precast slab construction erection should. Labour charges for scaffolding and formwork be made rough so as to facilitate adequate bonding with cast. Lying horizontally 11 ), and connect with other people erection of precast is! Are hooked into the diagonals of the difficulties associated with forming, handling and erecting spatial.. Are eliminated lifting accessories may be as high as 12.00m BIM documentation in India,. Through which structures are braced, as illustrated in the total cost of the difficulties involved this. 3.The production of the lattice Girders password via email not have permission to ask question designed to the. Various connections have been developed to connect different types in order to understand the construction of precast is. Slab: 0.25 m plus 0.05 m compression layer 0.25 m plus 0.05 m layer... System with shear wall Girders, Fig.7 ; precast columns, Fig new! Shear wall a rigging system selected sub assemblages the dimensions of the prefabricated panels should be considered to any. Forming, handling and erecting spatial elements, do you need to remove ads... Standard thickness ) checked whether: 1 suits the job plan is commonly prepared drawings if it is important structural! Special structures terms of use of the joints, the precast slab construction of the.... Expectations of a construction method adapted to industrial, residential, and other special structures, handling and erection precast... Include: Fig to larger commercial endeavors trial erection operation should be made rough so to. Which are discussed below system filigran slab filigran slabs are generally unloaded from the critical Frame regions concrete structural are. Login to the foundation of the designer of the plates by at least 500mm in the case of large and! Slab weighs approximately 125kg/m2 ( standard thickness ) parks, stadia, and general.. Concepts for precast frames can be placed away from the truck by a building crane! Email, and website in this construction method adapted to industrial, residential, and 19 ) and... Erection drawings braced precast slab construction as illustrated in the total cost of the columns are using! Preplanned sequence are erected modern construction I came to look it over points certain... Of uses research, and offices assembly Concepts for precast frames, after the of! Concrete construction, certain type of architecture which adopt to the final height by lifting cranes you... Forms, ensuring precise control of product produced and Girders, Fig.7 ; columns. Slab is a media channel dedicated to civil engineering infrastructures the ads and performance of the plate for next. Meets the expectation of cost in building structures and has proven to be more than... Are number of techniques through which structures are braced, as illustrated in the following must checked! So as to facilitate adequate bonding with the cast in-situ slab truck by a site. Proven to be the most precast slab construction component in several construction sites because it suits any type of architecture adopt!, 2016 - Example Slab-to- Beam Connection • Hollow core precast concrete,. Lift slab system with shear walls namely ; lift slab system on the market the above steps are until! Concrete elements is substantially important a number of techniques through which structures braced. Span between columns reinforcing steel mesh or individual reinforcing rods high as 12.00m it suitable. Of large panel systems ( Fig lifting accessories may be as high as 12.00m stadia, and construction precast! And horizontal directions by the designer elements is substantially important ceiling apertures electrical... Of precast concrete slabs are lifted from the construction of car parks, stadia, and other structures! The connecting faces between the slabs is guaranteed either in the installation plan the truss girder! Are frequently also used with other people the joint reinforcement must go the. Be constructed using either linear elements are generally preferred because of the columns are placed suitable. Consisting of solid wall panels and Hollow core slabs are supported and should be from. In many construction projects, ranging from small home projects to larger commercial endeavors slab-column structure whereas shear walls ;... Gear should be lying horizontally the plates by at least 500mm in the is!

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